Making Zero Accidents a Reality (Best Practice)

RT-160 Topic Summary
RT 160

Overview

This study assessed the impact, in a large project setting, of the Five High-Impact Zero Accident Techniques identified in the 1993 Zero Injury Techniques CII Study. Ten key topic areas were identified that contribute to improved safety performance. The five from the 1993 study were among them, but being implemented with some notable differences. The topic areas, in the order of how a safety initiative might take place are:

  1. Management commitment
  2. Staffing for safety
  3. Pre-project and pre-task planning
  4. Safety education (orientation and specialized training)
  5. Worker involvement
  6. Evaluation and recognition and reward
  7. Subcontractor management
  8. Accident/incident investigation
  9. Drug and alcohol testing
  10. Contract type

A related research study focused on short duration projects, commonly referred to as shutdowns, turnarounds, or outages, to assess the unique characteristics of these projects, particularly the rapid buildup of the workforce. Results found consistency with the key topic areas above, but additional factors that influence safety performance on these projects were:

  1. Transferring workers from other projects to perform the work
  2. Hiring workers a few weeks before the short duration project
  3. Shorter work weeks and project duration
  4. Smaller crews or worker--supervisor ratios
  5. Incentivized contracts

Key Findings and Implementation Tools

1 : Short Duration Projects

Shutdowns, turnarounds, or outages benefit from the safety factors referenced in Key Finding #2, but their unique characteristics benefit from additional safety factors, specifically: (RS160a-1, p. 5)

  1. Finding workers from similar company projects who are already familiar with the type of work. 
  2. Smaller scheduling time units provide more detailed planning, which enhances safety performance. 
  3. Hire workers in advance to provide training and become acclimated to the worksite. 
  4. Shorter work weeks and project duration, with work weeks no longer than six twelve-hour days, minimizes the impact of fatigue. 
  5. Smaller crew size or ratio of workers to supervisors.
  6. Incentivized contracts for good safety performance. 
Reference: (RS160a-1)

2 : Management Commitment

Management is of paramount importance to convey to others in the firm or on the projects that costs, schedule, and quality do not take priority over safety. Top management sets the tone and the philosophy by which the company safety standards will be set and implemented, and commits valuable resources to fully implement an effective safety program. (RS160-1, p. 4)
Reference: (RS160-1)

3 : 10 General Areas of Safety

Key insights on implementation of these 10 key topic areas are described in the research, including: (RS160-1 p. 4)

  1. Demonstrated management commitment must be sincere and conveyed to the worker level. 
  2. Staffing for safety requires full-time safety personnel to ensure safety needs of the project are being satisfied. 
  3. Pre-project and pre-task planning ensures a safety start and that safety is integrated into daily tasks.
  4. Safety education should include a formal jobsite orientation and additional training focused on the needs of individuals.
  5. Achieving the goal of zero accidents may be accomplished through behavior observations, worker safety perception surveys, and participation in safety committees.
  6. Recognition and rewards that are not costly, given often, and based on a specific goal, and that influence worker evaluations that impact wage increases. 
  7. Subcontractor management that drives the safety agenda beyond the general contractor’s own employees. 
  8. Accident investigation that identifies root causes and includes near misses. 
  9. Drug and alcohol testing with random testing. 
  10. Contract type data indicate that cost plus contracts result in better safety performance compared to lump sum contracts. 
Reference: (RS160-1)

4 : Zero Injuries

Notable conclusion is that the achievement of zero injuries on short duration projects is achievable. (RS160a-1, p. 20)
Reference: (RS160a-1)

5 : Safety Best Practices Implementation

The various topic areas must be taken as a systematic whole; there is no single best practice to impact safety performance, and no “quick fix.” All the factors are important and must be addressed in some way to achieve good safety records. (RR160-11, pp. 84-86)
Reference: (RR160-11)

6 : "Safer Firms" Use

Fifteen actions that "Safet Firms" use to achieve their high level of Safety Performance. (RS160-1, p. 21)
 
Reference: (RS160-1)

7 : Actions "Safer Firms" Use on Short Duration

11 actions firms use to achieve a high level of safety performance on Short Duration Projects. (RS160a-1, p.20)
Reference: (RS160a-1)

Key Performance Indicators

Improved safety

Research Publications

Safety Plus: Making Zero Accidents A Reality - RS160-1

Publication Date: 02/2003 Type: Research Summary Pages: 23 Status: Supporting Product

Making Zero Accidents A Reality: Focus on Shutdowns, Turnarounds, and Outages - RS160A-1

Publication Date: 07/2002 Type: Research Summary Pages: 26 Status: Supporting Product

Making Zero Accidents A Reality: Focus on Shutdowns, Turnarounds, and Outages - RR160A-11

Publication Date: 05/2002 Type: Research Report Pages: 96 Status: Reference

Safety Plus: Making Zero Accidents A Reality - RR160-11

Publication Date: 03/2002 Type: Research Report Pages: 110 Status: Reference


Presentations from CII Events

Implementation Session - Journey to Zero Injuries Using CII Best Practices

Publication Date: 06/2003 Presenter: Number of Slides: 38 Event Code: AC03

Plenary Session - Journey to Zero Injuries Using CII Best Practices

Publication Date: 06/2003 Presenter: Number of Slides: 20 Event Code: AC03

Session - Making Zero Accidents a Reality- Focusing on Shutdowns, Outages, and Turnarounds

Publication Date: 07/2002 Presenter: John Mathis Number of Slides: 28 Event Code: AC02

Plenary Session - Making Zero Accidents a Reality

Publication Date: 07/2001 Presenter: John Mathis Number of Slides: 27 Event Code: AC01

Session - Making Zero Incidents a Reality

Publication Date: Presenter: Number of Slides: 81 Event Code: PIW311

Session - Accidents Trending Down-Achieving Zero a Reality

Publication Date: Presenter: Number of Slides: 63 Event Code: PIW912


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