Effects of Field Rework (Archived)

RT-153 Topic Summary
RT 153


RT-153 was tasked with identifying the variables that predict field rework, beginning in the early design and definition phase. The team defined Rework as “activities in the field that have to be done more than once in the field, or activities that remove work previously installed as part of the project.” The research includes an Investigation of Field Rework in Industrial Construction and Early Warning for Field Rework and Cost Growth.

Rework is one of the most inefficient activities taking place on a construction site. There are several key negative consequences of rework, which include growing cost, schedule delays, productivity impacts, and demotivated craft workers. The team’s objectives included investigating field rework measurement, determining major causes of rework, assessing the cost and schedule impact of rework, identifying practices to minimize rework, and developing a tool to provide early warning of high field rework during construction. The Research Team conducted four major data gathering activities to gain a better understanding of the causes and effects of rework.

The research resulted in a database containing measurements of field rework, independent variables identified as potential predictors of rework, and parametric project data from completed projects was compiled and analyzed. The most tangible end product of the research is the development of the Field Rework Index (FRI). This is a simple tool intended for use multiple times throughout the preconstruction phase of the project by the project team. It is used for early warning of field rework. It was also found that there is a direct correlation between high FRI score and cost growth.

Projects experiencing high levels of field rework can generally trace the causes back to engineering design, scope definition and pre-project planning, and even the alignment within the organization of the owner for the project. Attempts to minimize field rework must start early in the project life. 

Key Findings and Implementation Tools

1 : Cause and Effect Variables

The research determined that there are significant relationships between field rework and some of the project variables and parameters the team studied. The variables that have the strongest relationship to field rework and cost growth are: Owner Alignment, Design Rework, Constructability Commitment, Interdisciplinary Design Coordination, and Degree of Project Execution Planning. (RS153-1, p. 10)
Reference: (RS153-1)

2 : Field Rework Index

The Field Rework Index (FRI) is a simple, two-page tool that helps projects identify causes of, and means to eliminate the most prevalent rework that have major impact on productivity, cost growth, and schedule objectives. The FRI is an aid that provides an early warning for the consequences of growth in cost and rework of tasks. The FRI has great potential to lower field rework and to contribute to improved cost effectiveness. (RS153-1, p. 15)
Reference: (RS153-1)

3 : Implementation Tool #1

RS153-1, The Field Rework Index

The FRI is comprised of 14 questions, rated on a scale of 1-5 and ranked, that will provide an indication of whether the project will experience either the risk of Rework and/or Cost Growth. The final rating can be compared on the FRI Rework Danger Chart, which provides a simple visual representation of where the project falls in the range of success. (RS153-1, p. 15)

Reference: (RS153-1)

Key Performance Indicators

Improved cost, Improved quality (reduced errors & omissions), Improved design

Research Publications

An Investigation of Field Rework in Industrial Construction - RR153-11

Publication Date: 09/2001 Type: Research Report Pages: 121 Status: Archived Reference

The Field Rework Index: Early Warning for Field Rework and Cost Growth - RS153-1

Publication Date: 05/2001 Type: Research Summary Pages: 29 Status: Archived Tool

Presentations from CII Events

Session - Forecasting and Minimizing Field Reword

Publication Date: 07/2000 Presenter: Jim Atkinson Number of Slides: 16 Event Code: AC00